Over the years, Lebanon has implemented a number of social, economic and political policy measures to correct imbalances; however, reducing inequalities remains a challenge.
When considering “ensuring equal opportunity and reducing inequalities of outcome” (SDG Target 10.3), the World Bank’s inequality-adjusted 2015 human development index shows that Lebanon faces notable inequality of opportunities and outcomes among its citizens, particularly regarding income and education, and to a lesser extent health. The index loses 21 per cent because of losses mainly from income and education inequality compared to the values of the non-inequality-adjusted human development index.
In terms of social, economic and political inclusion (Target 10.2), some progress in certain areas like gender is observed. Part of the challenge is due to weak opportunity and disparities in quality between public and private services – whether real or perceived – people tend to complement or completely substitute public services with private ones, and this accentuates inequalities.
Economic exclusion is reflected in a high informality rate where the vast majority of the poor work under unfavorable working conditions with limited decent job opportunities creation.
Geographical disparities in accessibility to services further compound economic and social forms of inequality.